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Preprints, Working Papers, ... Year : 2021

Distinct systemic and mucosal immune responses to SARS-CoV-2

Pedro Goncalves
Timothée Bruel
Vincent Rouilly
  • Function : Author
Olivier Schwartz
Hugo Mouquet

Abstract

Coordinated local mucosal and systemic immune responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection protect against COVID-19 pathologies or fail leading to severe clinical outcomes. To understand this process, we performed an integrated analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies, cytokines, viral load and 16S bacterial communities in paired nasopharyngeal swabs and plasma samples from a cohort of clinically distinct COVID-19 patients during acute infection. Plasma viral load was associated with systemic inflammatory cytokines that were elevated in severe COVID-19, and also with spike-specific neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, nasopharyngeal viral load correlated with SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses but inversely with interferon responses, the latter associating with protective microbial communities. Potential pathogenic microrganisms, often implicated in secondary respiratory infections, were associated with mucosal inflammation and elevated in severe COVID-19. Our results demonstrate distinct tissue compartmentalization of SARS-CoV-2 immune responses and highlight a role for the nasopharyngeal microbiome in regulating local and systemic immunity that determines COVID-19 clinical outcomes.

Domains

Immunology
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Dates and versions

pasteur-03244398 , version 1 (01-06-2021)

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Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives

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Nikaïa Smith, Pedro Goncalves, Bruno Charbit, Ludivine Grzelak, Maxime Beretta, et al.. Distinct systemic and mucosal immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. 2021. ⟨pasteur-03244398⟩
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