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Journal Articles PLoS ONE Year : 2022

Human T-Lymphotropic virus type 1 and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in rural Gabon

Abstract

Introduction Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) co-infection occur in many populations. People living with HIV-1 and infected with HTLV-1 seem more likely to progress rapidly towards AIDS. Both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are endemic in Gabon (Central Africa). We investigated HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infection in the Haut-Ogooué province, and assessed factors that may favor the rapid evolution and progression to AIDS in co-infected patients. Methods Plasma samples from HTLV-1 patients were tested using ELISA, and positive samples were then tested by western blot assay (WB). We used the polymerase chain reaction to detect HTLV-1 Tax/Rex genes using DNA extracted from the buffy coat of ELISA-positives samples. Results We recruited 299 individuals (mean age 46 years) including 90 (30%) men and 209 (70%) women, all of whom are under treatment at the Ambulatory Treatment Centre of the province. Of these, 45 were ELISA HTLV-1/2 seropositive. According to WB criteria, 21 of 45 were confirmed positive: 20 were HTLV-1 (44%), 1 was HTLV-1/2 (2%), 2 were indeterminate (4%) and 22 were seronegative (49%). PCR results showed that 23 individuals were positive for the Tax/Rex region. Considering both serological and molecular assays, the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection was estimated at 7.7%. Being a woman and increasing age were found to be independent risk factors for co-infection. Mean CD4+ cell counts were higher in HTLV-1/HIV-1 co-infected (578.1 (± 340.8) cells/mm3) than in HIV-1 mono-infected (481.0 (± 299.0) cells/mm3) Individuals. Similarly, the mean HIV-1 viral load was Log 3.0 (± 1.6) copies/ml in mono-infected and Log 2.3 (± 0.7) copies/ml in coinfected individuals. Conclusion We described an overall high prevalence of HTLV-1/HIV-1 co-infection in Gabon. Our findings stress the need of strategies to prevent and manage these co-infections.
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pasteur-04079375 , version 1 (24-04-2023)

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Augustin Mouinga-Ondémé, Larson Boundenga, Ingrid Précilya Koumba Koumba, Antony Idam Mamimandjiami, Abdoulaye Diané, et al.. Human T-Lymphotropic virus type 1 and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in rural Gabon. PLoS ONE, 2022, 17 (7), pp.e0271320. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0271320⟩. ⟨pasteur-04079375⟩
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