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Journal Articles Biologie Aujourd'hui Year : 2018

Mosquito microbiota and its influence on disease vectorial transmission

Le microbiote de moustique et son influence sur la transmission vectorielle

Abstract

Mosquito microbiota and its influence on disease vectorial transmission. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are found worldwide. Around 100 among 3500 mosquito species are known to be vectors of parasites and viruses, responsible for infectious diseases including malaria and dengue. Mosquitoes host diverse microbial communities that influence disease transmission, either by direct interference or via affecting host immunity and physiology. These microbial communities are present within diverse tissues, including the digestive tract, and vary depending on the sex of the mosquito, its developmental stage, and ecological factors. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the mosquito microbiota, defined as a community of commensal, symbiotic or pathogenic microbes harboured by a host. We first describe the current knowledge on the diversity of the microbiota, that includes bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses and on its modes of acquisition throughout the mosquito life cycle. We then focus on microbial interactions within the mosquito gut, which notably affect vector competence, and on host-microbe interactions affecting mosquito fitness. Finally, we discuss current or potential methods based on the use of microbes or microbial products to interfere with pathogen transmission or to reduce mosquito lifespan and reproduction.
Les moustiques, constituant la famille des Culicidae, sont présents partout dans le monde. Parmi leurs 3500 espèces, on compte une centaine de vecteurs d'agents pathogènes pour l'homme. Ils hébergent des communautés microbiennes qui influencent notamment leur propension à transmettre ces pathogènes par inhibition directe ou en affectant l'immunité et la physiologie de leur hôte. Ces communautés microbiennes colonisent divers tissus, notamment l'appareil digestif, et varient en fonction du sexe, du stade de développement et de facteurs écologiques. Dans cette revue, nous décrivons la diversité du microbiote, incluant des bactéries, des champignons, des parasites et des virus, ainsi que ses modes d'acquisition. Nous faisons état des connaissances sur les interactions microbiennes chez le moustique, qui affectent notamment la compétence vectorielle, et sur l'effet du microbiote sur le moustique. Enfin, nous nous intéressons aux opportunités d'utilisation de microbes ou de dérivés microbiens pour lutter contre la transmission vectorielle. Abstract-Mosquito microbiota and its influence on disease vectorial transmission. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are found worldwide. Around 100 among 3500 mosquito species are known to be vectors of parasites and viruses, responsible for infectious diseases including malaria and dengue. Mosquitoes host diverse microbial communities that influence disease transmission, either by direct interference or via affecting host immunity and physiology. These microbial communities are present within diverse tissues, including the digestive tract, and vary depending on the sex of the mosquito, its developmental stage, and ecological factors. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the mosquito microbiota, defined as a community of commensal, symbiotic or pathogenic microbes harboured by a host. We first describe the current knowledge on the diversity of the microbiota, that includes bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses and on its modes of acquisition throughout the mosquito life cycle. We then focus on microbial interactions within the mosquito gut, which notably affect vector competence, and on host-microbe interactions affecting mosquito fitness. Finally, we discuss current or potential methods based on the use of microbes or microbial products to interfere with pathogen transmission or to reduce mosquito lifespan and reproduction.
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pasteur-02919246 , version 1 (21-08-2020)

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Katy Heu, Mathilde Gendrin. Le microbiote de moustique et son influence sur la transmission vectorielle. Biologie Aujourd'hui, 2018, 212 (3-4), pp.119-136. ⟨10.1051/jbio/2019003⟩. ⟨pasteur-02919246⟩
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