Epidemiological Evidence of Nosocomial and Zoonotic Transmission of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus-1 in a Large Survey in a Rural Population of Central Africa - Institut Pasteur Access content directly
Journal Articles (Data Paper) Journal of Infectious Diseases Year : 2022

Epidemiological Evidence of Nosocomial and Zoonotic Transmission of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus-1 in a Large Survey in a Rural Population of Central Africa

Abstract

Background Central Africa is one of the largest areas of high endemicity for human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). However, no preventive measures are yet implemented to reduce its transmission, which can be sexual, from mother-to-child, or through contaminated blood products. Rare zoonotic transmissions from nonhuman primates (NHPs) have also been reported in this region. Here we investigated the HTLV-1 prevalence and associated risk factors in a rural population in Cameroon. Methods From 2019 to 2021, we performed a cross-sectional survey in the eastern region of Cameroon. HTLV-1 infection was first screened by ELISA, then tested by western blot and envelope gene targeted polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were identified by logistic regression in univariable and multivariable analyses. Results Among 3400 participants, HTLV-1 prevalence was 1.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], .7–1.5). Factors independently associated with HTLV-1 infection were Pygmy ethnicity (adjusted odd ratio [aOR], 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3–6.2), history of surgery (aOR, 6.3; 95% CI, 2.2–17.8), and NHP bite (aOR, 6.6; 95% CI, 2.2–19.8). Conclusions These results suggest both iatrogenic and zoonotic transmission of HTLV-1 in Cameroon. Further studies are needed to assess the risk of nosocomial transmission of HTLV-1, to guide public health authorities in implementing preventive measures to control HTLV-1 transmission.
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pasteur-03980496 , version 1 (09-02-2023)

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Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives

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Jill Léa Ramassamy, Chanceline Bilounga Ndongo, Patrick Nnuka, Maëlle Antunes, Margot Le Mener, et al.. Epidemiological Evidence of Nosocomial and Zoonotic Transmission of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus-1 in a Large Survey in a Rural Population of Central Africa. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2022, pp.jiac312. ⟨10.1093/infdis/jiac312⟩. ⟨pasteur-03980496⟩
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