G. Jensen, B. Hansen, J. Eilenberg, and J. Mahillon, The hidden lifestyles of Bacillus cereus and relatives, Environmental Microbiology, vol.24, issue.8, pp.631-640, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1462-2920.2003.00461.x

A. Kolsto, N. Tourasse, and O. Okstad, Species?, Annual Review of Microbiology, vol.63, issue.1, pp.451-476, 2009.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.micro.091208.073255

X. Hu, G. Van-der-auwera, S. Timmery, L. Zhu, and J. Mahillon, Distribution, Diversity, and Potential Mobility of Extrachromosomal Elements Related to the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 Virulence Plasmids, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.75, issue.10, pp.3016-3028, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.02709-08

J. Pannucci, R. Okinaka, R. Sabin, and C. Kuske, Bacillus anthracis pXO1 Plasmid Sequence Conservation among Closely Related Bacterial Species, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.184, issue.1, pp.134-141, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/JB.184.1.134-141.2002

J. Pannucci, R. Okinaka, E. Williams, R. Sabin, and L. Ticknor, DNA sequence conservation between the Bacillus anthracis pXO2 plasmid and genomic sequence from closely related bacteria, BMC Genomics, vol.3, issue.1, pp.34-12473162, 2002.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2164-3-34

H. Agaisse, M. Gominet, O. Okstad, A. Kolsto, and D. Lereclus, PlcR is a pleiotropic regulator of extracellular virulence factor gene expression in Bacillus thuringiensis, Molecular Microbiology, vol.19, issue.5, pp.1043-1053, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1369-5274(98)80005-2

P. Goossens, Animal models of human anthrax: The Quest for the Holy Grail, Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol.30, issue.6, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mam.2009.07.005

R. Okinaka, K. Cloud, O. Hampton, A. Hoffmaster, and K. Hill, Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes, J Bacteriol, vol.181, pp.6509-6515, 1999.

M. Mock and A. Fouet, Anthrax, Annual Review of Microbiology, vol.55, issue.1, pp.647-671, 2001.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.micro.55.1.647

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00083712

T. Candela and A. Fouet, Bacillus anthracis CapD, belonging to the ??-glutamyltranspeptidase family, is required for the covalent anchoring of capsule to peptidoglycan, Molecular Microbiology, vol.63, issue.3, pp.717-726, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04718.x

A. Piris-gimenez, J. Corre, G. Jouvion, T. Candela, and H. Khun, Interacts Closely with Liver Endothelium, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.200, issue.9, pp.1381-1389, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/644506

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00512101

M. Mock and T. Mignot, Anthrax toxins and the host: a story of intimacy, Cellular Microbiology, vol.63, issue.1, pp.15-23, 2003.
DOI : 10.1021/bi981436i

A. Hoffmaster, K. Hill, J. Gee, C. Marston, and B. De, Characterization of Bacillus cereus Isolates Associated with Fatal Pneumonias: Strains Are Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis and Harbor B. anthracis Virulence Genes, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.44, issue.9, pp.3352-3360, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.00561-06

A. Hoffmaster, J. Ravel, D. Rasko, G. Chapman, and M. Chute, Identification of anthrax toxin genes in a Bacillus cereus associated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.101, issue.22, pp.8449-8454, 2004.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0402414101

D. Sue, A. Hoffmaster, T. Popovic, and P. Wilkins, Capsule Production in Bacillus cereus Strains Associated with Severe Pneumonia, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.44, issue.9, pp.3426-3428, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.00873-06

A. Wright, S. Beres, E. Consamus, S. Long, and A. Flores, Rapidly Progressive, Fatal, Inhalation Anthraxlike Infection in a Human: Case Report, 2011.

O. Okstad, M. Gominet, B. Purnelle, M. Rose, and D. Lereclus, Sequence analysis of three Bacillus cereus loci carrying PlcR-regulated genes encoding degradative enzymes and enterotoxin, Microbiology, vol.145, issue.11, pp.3129-3138, 1999.
DOI : 10.1099/00221287-145-11-3129

S. Oh, J. Budzik, G. Garufi, and O. Schneewind, Two capsular polysaccharides enable Bacillus cereus G9241 to cause anthrax-like disease, Molecular Microbiology, vol.76, issue.2, pp.455-470, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07582.x

R. Okinaka, K. Cloud, O. Hampton, A. Hoffmaster, and K. Hill, Sequence, assembly and analysis of pX01 and pX02, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.65, issue.2, pp.261-262, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.279.5358.1827a

S. Klee, M. Ozel, B. Appel, C. Boesch, and H. Ellerbrok, Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-Like Bacteria Isolated from Wild Great Apes from Cote d'Ivoire and Cameroon, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.188, issue.15, pp.5333-5344, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/JB.00303-06

F. Leendertz, H. Ellerbrok, C. Boesch, E. Couacy-hymann, and K. Matz-rensing, Anthrax kills wild chimpanzees in a tropical rainforest, Nature, vol.45, issue.6998, pp.451-452, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.40.7.2323-2330.2002

F. Leendertz, F. Lankester, P. Guislain, C. Neel, and O. Drori, Anthrax in Western and Central African great apes, American Journal of Primatology, vol.79, issue.9, pp.928-933, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/ajp.20298

F. Leendertz, S. Yumlu, G. Pauli, C. Boesch, and E. Couacy-hymann, A New Bacillus anthracis Found in Wild Chimpanzees and a Gorilla from West and Central Africa, PLoS Pathogens, vol.101, issue.1, pp.8-16738706, 2006.
DOI : 0027-8424(2004)101[8449:IOATGI]2.0.CO;2

S. Klee, E. Brzuszkiewicz, H. Nattermann, H. Bruggemann, and S. Dupke, The Genome of a Bacillus Isolate Causing Anthrax in Chimpanzees Combines Chromosomal Properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis Virulence Plasmids, PLoS ONE, vol.32, issue.7, p.20634886, 2010.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0010986.s008

H. Mableson, A. Okello, K. Picozzi, and S. Welburn, Neglected Zoonotic Diseases???The Long and Winding Road to Advocacy, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol.169, issue.6, p.24901769, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002800.t001

P. Sylvestre, E. Couture-tosi, and M. Mock, Contribution of ExsFA and ExsFB Proteins to the Localization of BclA on the Spore Surface and to the Stability of the Bacillus anthracis Exosporium, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.187, issue.15, pp.5122-5128, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/JB.187.15.5122-5128.2005

V. Ramisse, G. Patra, H. Garrigue, J. Guesdon, and M. Mock, by multiplex PCR analysis of sequences on plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 and chromosomal DNA, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.145, issue.1, pp.9-16, 1996.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1996.tb08548.x

G. Patra, J. Vaissaire, M. Weber-levy, L. Doujet, C. Mock et al., Molecular characterization of Bacillus strains involved in outbreaks of anthrax in France in 1997, J Clin Microbiol, vol.36, pp.3412-3414, 1998.

P. Trieu-cuot, C. Carlier, P. Martin, and P. Courvalin, to Gram-positive bacteria, FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.48, issue.1-2, pp.289-294, 1987.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1987.tb02558.x

I. Glomski, A. Piris-gimenez, M. Huerre, M. Mock, and P. Goossens, Primary Involvement of Pharynx and Peyer's Patch in Inhalational and Intestinal Anthrax, PLoS Pathogens, vol.2, issue.6, pp.76-17542645, 2007.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030076.sg001

C. Pezard, P. Berche, and M. Mock, Contribution of individual toxin components to virulence of Bacillus anthracis, Infect Immun, vol.59, pp.3472-3477, 1991.

P. Sylvestre, E. Couture-tosi, and M. Mock, Polymorphism in the Collagen-Like Region of the Bacillus anthracis BclA Protein Leads to Variation in Exosporium Filament Length, Journal of Bacteriology, vol.185, issue.5, pp.1555-1563, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/JB.185.5.1555-1563.2003

F. Brossier, M. Weber-levy, M. Mock, and J. Sirard, Protective Antigen-Mediated Antibody Response against a Heterologous Protein Produced In Vivo by Bacillus anthracis, Infection and Immunity, vol.68, issue.10, pp.5731-5734, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.68.10.5731-5734.2000

A. Chateau, W. Van-schaik, A. Six, W. Aucher, and A. Fouet, CodY regulation is required for full virulence and heme iron acquisition in Bacillus anthracis, The FASEB Journal, vol.25, issue.12, pp.4445-4456, 2011.
DOI : 10.1096/fj.11-188912

M. Bertin, A. Chateau, and A. Fouet, Full expression of Bacillus anthracis toxin gene in the presence of bicarbonate requires a 2.7-kb-long atxA mRNA that contains a terminator structure, Research in Microbiology, vol.161, issue.4, pp.249-259, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.resmic.2010.03.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00511932

P. Trieu-cuot, C. Carlier, C. Poyart-salmeron, and P. Courvalin, An integrative vector exploiting the transposition properties of Tn1545 for insertional mutagenesis and cloning of genes from Gram-positive bacteria, Gene, vol.106, issue.1, pp.21-27, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-1119(91)90561-O

M. Monot, N. Honore, C. Baliere, J. B. Sow, and S. , Are Variable-Number Tandem Repeats Appropriate for Genotyping Mycobacterium leprae?, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.46, issue.7, pp.2291-2297, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.00239-08

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01370869

J. Sirard, M. Mock, and A. Fouet, Molecular tools for the study of transcriptional regulation in Bacillus anthracis, Research in Microbiology, vol.146, issue.9, pp.729-737, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0923-2508(96)81069-2

J. Corzo, R. Perez-galdona, M. Leon-barrios, and A. Gutierrez-navarro, Alcian blue fixation allows silver staining of the isolated polysaccharide component of bacterial lipopolysaccharides in polyacrylamide gels, Electrophoresis, vol.172, issue.6, pp.439-441, 1991.
DOI : 10.1002/elps.1150120611

A. Karlyshev and B. Wren, Detection and Initial Characterization of Novel Capsular Polysaccharide among Diverse Campylobacter jejuni Strains Using Alcian Blue Dye, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.39, issue.1, pp.279-284, 2001.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.39.1.279-284.2001

L. Reed and H. Muench, A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints, Am J Hyg, vol.27, pp.493-497, 1938.

F. Brossier, M. Levy, and M. Mock, Anthrax spores make an essential contribution to vaccine efficacy, Infect Immun, vol.70, pp.661-664, 2002.

Y. Gauthier, J. Tournier, J. Paucod, J. Corre, and M. Mock, Efficacy of a Vaccine Based on Protective Antigen and Killed Spores against Experimental Inhalational Anthrax, Infection and Immunity, vol.77, issue.3, pp.1197-1207, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01217-08

S. Mesnage, E. Tosi-couture, P. Gounon, M. Mock, and A. Fouet, The capsule and S-layer: two independent and yet compatible macromolecular structures in Bacillus anthracis, J Bacteriol, vol.180, pp.52-58, 1998.

F. Dumetz, G. Jouvion, H. Khun, I. Glomski, and J. Corre, Noninvasive Imaging Technologies Reveal Edema Toxin as a Key Virulence Factor in Anthrax, The American Journal of Pathology, vol.178, issue.6, pp.2523-2535, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.02.027

E. Harvill, G. Lee, V. Grippe, and T. Merkel, Complement Depletion Renders C57BL/6 Mice Sensitive to the Bacillus anthracis Sterne Strain, Infection and Immunity, vol.73, issue.7, pp.4420-4422, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.73.7.4420-4422.2005

S. Welkos, T. Keener, and P. Gibbs, Differences in susceptibility of inbred mice to Bacillus anthracis, Infect Immun, vol.51, pp.795-800, 1986.

P. Turnbull, Anthrax vaccines: past, present and future, Vaccine, vol.9, issue.8, pp.533-539, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0264-410X(91)90237-Z

T. Hammerstrom, J. Roh, E. Nikonowicz, and T. Koehler, Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA: oligomeric state, function and CO2-signalling, Molecular Microbiology, vol.191, issue.3, pp.634-647, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07843.x

B. Tsvetanova, A. Wilson, C. Bongiorni, C. Chiang, and J. Hoch, Opposing effects of histidine phosphorylation regulate the AtxA virulence transcription factor in Bacillus anthracis, Molecular Microbiology, vol.13, issue.3, pp.644-655, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05543.x

K. Passalacqua, A. Varadarajan, B. Byrd, and N. Bergman, Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato Strains during Growth in CO2-Bicarbonate and Aerobic Atmospheres, PLoS ONE, vol.4, issue.3, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0004904.s014

I. Glomski, F. Dumetz, G. Jouvion, M. Huerre, and M. Mock, Inhaled non-capsulated Bacillus anthracis in A/J mice: nasopharynx and alveolar space as dual portals of entry, delayed dissemination, and specific organ targeting, Microbes and Infection, vol.10, issue.12-13, pp.1398-1404, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.micinf.2008.07.042

A. Bourgogne, M. Drysdale, S. Hilsenbeck, S. Peterson, and T. Koehler, Global Effects of Virulence Gene Regulators in a Bacillus anthracis Strain with Both Virulence Plasmids, Infection and Immunity, vol.71, issue.5, pp.2736-2743, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.71.5.2736-2743.2003

T. Mignot, M. Mock, D. Robichon, A. Landier, and D. Lereclus, The incompatibility between the PlcR- and AtxA-controlled regulons may have selected a nonsense mutation in Bacillus anthracis, Molecular Microbiology, vol.48, issue.5, pp.1189-1198, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02692.x

I. Mori, Y. Nishiyama, T. Yokochi, and Y. Kimura, Olfactory transmission of neurotropic viruses, Journal of Neurovirology, vol.348, issue.2, pp.129-137, 2005.
DOI : 10.1080/13550280590922793

K. Jarolim, J. Mccosh, M. Howard, and D. John, A Light Microscopy Study of the Migration of Naegleria fowleri from the Nasal Submucosa to the Central Nervous System during the Early Stage of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis in Mice, The Journal of Parasitology, vol.86, issue.1, pp.50-55, 2000.
DOI : 10.2307/3284907

H. Sjolinder and A. Jonsson, Olfactory Nerve???A Novel Invasion Route of Neisseria meningitidis to Reach the Meninges, PLoS ONE, vol.72, issue.11, p.21124975, 2010.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0014034.g007

P. Zwijnenburg, T. Van-der-poll, S. Florquin, S. Van-deventer, and J. Roord, Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis in Mice: A Model of Intranasal Infection, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.183, issue.7, pp.1143-1146, 2001.
DOI : 10.1086/319271

C. Ashbaugh, T. Moser, M. Shearer, G. White, and R. Kennedy, Bacterial determinants of persistent throat colonization and the associated immune response in a primate model of human group A streptococcal pharyngeal infection, Cellular Microbiology, vol.122, issue.4, pp.283-292, 2000.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1462-5822.2000.00050.x

I. Gryllos, C. Cywes, M. Shearer, M. Cary, and R. Kennedy, Regulation of capsule gene expression by group A Streptococcus during pharyngeal colonization and invasive infection, Molecular Microbiology, vol.66, issue.1, pp.61-74, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02635.x

S. Liu, S. Miller-randolph, D. Crown, M. Moayeri, and I. Sastalla, Anthrax Toxin Targeting of Myeloid Cells through the CMG2 Receptor Is Essential for Establishment of Bacillus anthracis Infections in Mice, Cell Host & Microbe, vol.8, issue.5, pp.455-462, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chom.2010.10.004

S. Oh, H. Maier, J. Schroeder, G. Richter, and D. Elli, Vaccine Protection against Bacillus cereus-Mediated Respiratory Anthrax-Like Disease in Mice, Infection and Immunity, vol.81, issue.3, p.23319564, 2013.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01346-12

I. Glomski, J. Corre, M. Mock, and P. Goossens, Noncapsulated Toxinogenic Bacillus anthracis Presents a Specific Growth and Dissemination Pattern in Naive and Protective Antigen-Immune Mice, Infection and Immunity, vol.75, issue.10, pp.4754-4761, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.00575-07

S. Welkos, N. Vietri, and P. Gibbs, Non-toxigenic derivatives of the Ames strain of Bacillus anthracis are fully virulent for mice: role of plasmid pX02 and chromosome in strain-dependent virulence, Microbial Pathogenesis, vol.14, issue.5, pp.381-388, 1993.
DOI : 10.1006/mpat.1993.1037

M. Van-ert, W. Easterday, L. Huynh, R. Okinaka, H. et al., Global Genetic Population Structure of Bacillus anthracis, PLoS ONE, vol.94, issue.5, pp.461-17520020, 2007.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0000461.s006